See that teeny, tiny story at the bottom of the second column from the left? From the April 29, 1954 edition of the Globe and Mail, a story on the union at Avro Canada Ltd. cancelling its annual golf tournament because the Lakeview Club wouldn’t let a “negro” employee play. Way to go, Local 717.
This week at the Ethnic Aisle, we’re exploring the past, present and future of racism in Toronto. Racism was and is part of Toronto. Moreover, our racism is evolving. This isn’t a value judgment so much as an observation: as the city changes, so too do our experiences with prejudice, both systemic and personal.
These posts aren’t a referendum on whether each successive generation is getting any better or worse at being racist (we’re saving that for a March Madness-styled tournament post. Haha, just kidding! Maybe). Rather, think of this as crib notes on issues that often get forgotten amongst the greater narrative of Toronto the Good, with a side of self-reflection on our progressive city’s decidedly less-progressive moments.By looking at Toronto’s racism in greater contextual scope, we hope to get the ball rolling on some conversations about how we’re all getting along and where we all hope to end up.
To get things started, we look back at The Past.
Renee Sylvestre-Williams presents a timeline of Canada’s more egregious racist decisions. For example, remember that time our first Prime Minister didn’t believe Asian or First Nations folks should have the right to vote? No? Well read all about it here.
Chantal Braganza gets municipal, exploring how Toronto’s by-laws have been slightly less than accommodating over the years (hint: very passive aggressively. How totally us, right?).
Then, we address the reality of racism in The Present.
Kelli Korducki talks to the Migrant Workers Alliance for Change, and learns some harsh truths about the way Canada treats the racialized internationals who work on our farms.
Lisa Charleyboy dissects last August’s Holy Chuck Burger scandal, when the Toronto restaurant thought it was ok to have a sandwich named the “Drunken, Dirty Half-Breed” on its menu.
Illustrator Roxana Parsa shares her graphic take on the GTA’s downtown/suburban divide.
Sam Tecle show, in stark numbers, how racialization of poverty leaves many non-white Torontonians in substandard housing.
Navneet Alang on paying lip-service to diversity in a city where the media, cultural institutions and wealth are mostly white.
Anupa Mistry talks toLiza Paul and Bahia Watson, the playwrights and actors behind the hilarious Pomme is French for Apple.
And finally, our writers move on to The Future.
Denise Balkissoon argues for purposeful, perhaps policy-based, integration as the key to a less racist future.
Jef Catapang asks the experts: Canadian science fiction writers share their ideas on what “race” is, and where prejudice is going.
and Septembre Anderson wonders if racial profiling by police will always be part of Toronto.
Comment, tweet, write a response post! We’d love if you joined in the conversation.
By Septembre Anderson
“Blacks arrested by Toronto police are treated more harshly than whites….
“Black people, charged with simple drug possession, are taken to police stations more often than whites facing the same charge.
“Once at the station, accused blacks are held overnight, for a bail hearing, at twice the rate of whites.
–“Singled Out,” Jim Rankin, Jennifer Quinn, Michelle Shephard, Scott Simmie and John Duncanson, October 19, 2002
“You were sent here to protect us but who protects us from you?”
In 2002, a team of Toronto Star journalists sorted through mounds of police data from over 480,000 incidents to put together the Race and Crime series. The collection of articles, profiles, maps and statistics unveiled an unsettling trend in the Metropolitan Toronto Police culture: racial profiling.
For Toronto’s black communities, the Star series was just quantitative evidence of their qualitative experiences. In the rest of Canada’s most populous city, the numbers on racial profiling caused an uproar. Julian Fantino, then chief of the Toronto Police Service, denied the Star’s allegations, and in 2003, the police union launched a $2.7 billion class-action libel suit against the Star (which it eventually lost).
It’s been almost ten years since the Star released its groundbreaking report and while much has changed, much has remained the same. This year, the Star series “Known to Police” revealed that black people are 3.2 times more likely than white people to be stopped by the police.
By Jef Catapang
If you read a fair share of sci-fi (written by someone other than Octavia E. Butler), you might be prone to feeling like all this flesh-wringing about race will be looked upon as nothing more than a quaint marker of our times. A lot of sci-fi teaches us that race just won’t be an issue in the future. Besides, if there is still such thing as racism in the future it will be directed at robots, so who cares? Not us. It doesn’t matter how sexy you are, robots. We’re not buying it.
To get a deeper sense of how science fiction has dealt with the possibilities of human interaction and diversity, we called up some of Canada’s most intelligent and most out-there imaginations to talk sci-fi, race and the future of us.
The Shrine of the Siren Stone (in which an otaku anime-nerd falls in love with a Japanese girl dressed as a French maid who turns out to be an android)
On why scientific developments won’t change racism:
The concept of race is rather hard to define to begin with. Even though all the scientific research shows that people have the same DNA, that we have the same ancestors, there will always be some differences. I’m not saying those differences are good or bad, they’re just there and people will notice them.
On why ‘first contact’ won’t bring about world peace:
Often science fiction authors will say that we’ll all suddenly become one unified human race as we realize that we’re not alone. I’m going to take the opposite approach and say that the arrival of aliens will not make us see ourselves any more unified than we already were.
A good example is when the Europeans came to North America. That did not end the squabbling or the warfare amongst the Native American or Canadian First Nations tribes. They still fought against each other, and indeed, they even sought out alliances between the English, French and the Spanish against each other. So I don’t think that the arrival of aliens will make human ethnic groups feel like they have any more or less in common than they do now. Unless, of course, we end up being common prey.
Moon Honey (in which an 18-year-old white waitress suddenly turns Black)
On everyone being beige in the future:
When I go to Toronto, I’m always struck by all these mixed-race couples, children, and people that I see. That it’s actually in ads now, which to me suggests some sort of acceptance in the mainstream of this as being normal—in quotation marks. You don’t see it as much in Calgary. You see it on the street but you don’t necessarily see it reflected in the media. And I remember someone telling me statistics about Japanese-Canadians, about how they’re gradually kind of disappearing as they’re inter-marrying with other races. My feeling is that perhaps what will happen is we’ll have this blending as we go. On the other hand, there’s tons of Islamophobia. I think about the Tea Party, and all the kind of stuff that’s happening in the United States, which suggests a return to segregation rather than an inter-mixing.
On our increasing capability to control what our bodies look like:
Weirder and weirder things are happening for beauty. People are altering their faces and looking more and more like cats. I wonder—there’s a certain kind of aesthetic that goes with bi-racial Asian people that seems to be fetishized and seen as beautiful. And what about these lips that people are getting, these kind of big lips? I don’t know. Are people wanting lips like Black people?
On why racism is here to stay:
There will always be an underclass and there will always be racial undertones associated with that. Think about the historical movement towards the prairie, where the desirables and the so-called whites were English people or Scottish people, and then the Irish came and they were black. And once they were integrated, well, the Italians were black. Then the Ukranians and now it’s the visible minorities. I think that’s just the way we’re genetically engineered: to be mean to somebody, to find justification to exploit somebody else or treat somebody else poorly.
By Navneet Alang
In July of this year, 14-year-old Shyanne Charles and youth worker and entrepreneur Joshua Yasay were killed in the worst shooting in Toronto’s history, on Danzig Avenue in Scarborough. Four days later, news broke of the mass shooting in Aurora, Colorado. Both times, my social media feeds lit up with fear, anger and confusion. Still, I noticed something: the people in my Twitter more easily related to a nerdy film audience excitedly watching a summer blockbuster a few thousand miles away than to a group of people hanging out in Scarborough. One person I follow actually said that, however strangely, she felt more threatened by the events in Aurora than those in Toronto’s east end.
I was as disturbed by her statement as I was sympathetic. I knew something about it was deeply wrong. Yet, at the same time, I entirely understood. As the day went on, it became clear that people seemed to share the sentiment: these people in Aurora—just like me!—were simply watching a movie, but I’ve never been to a barbeque in Scarborough.
It was then that the blindingly obvious hit me: it was that sentiment, and others like it, that are the root of Toronto’s troubles with race.
By Lisa Charleyboy
“Half-breed is an historic term used to describe anyone who is of mixed Native American (especially North American) and white European parentage. Métis is a more general French term for mixed race, which has generally referred to a person of descent from two different major ethnic groups, such as European and African, European and Native American, or European and Asian.”—Wikipedia, the first Google hit for “half-breed.”
Despite the fact that there are nearly 80,000 Aboriginal people in the GTA, Indigenous people are nearly invisible to the average Toronto resident. When Native people visit from cities like Edmonton and Winnipeg, where the Aboriginal population is highly visible, they are often confused as to where all the Native people are.
This invisibility often means that immigrants who come to Canada have little education about the history or current reality of Indigenous people whose land they are settling on. Outside of Canada, the North American “Indian” is usually known by tired stereotypes—like the Noble Savage, Pocahontas, or the Drunken, Dirty Half-breed.
For those who don’t know, the “Drunken, Dirty Half-breed” was, until last August, the name of a hamburger at Holy Chuck Burger, near Yonge and St. Clair. Also on the menu was a burger named the “Half-Breed,” and both had been menu staples since 2011.
by Renee Sylvestre-Williams
The question isn’t “Is Canada racist?” It’s “When and how has Canada been racist?”
Though Canada’s reputation is that it embraces multiculturalism and tolerance, our nation’s history isn’t simply one of racial utopia. There have been the blatant examples, such as the Chinese Head Tax or Japanese internment camps, while some have been passed off as a joke. Toronto’s Holy Chuck Burgers had burgers called the “Half-Breed” and the “Dirty Drunken Half Breed.”
That was in August 2012.
What follows isn’t just a list of racial incidents in Canada. That, quite frankly, would be depressing and not the point; Canada also has a history of doing the right thing. But there have been some major incidents of racism during our country’s existence as New France, British North America and Canada.